After a war of independence against the Portuguese colonizer, Angola has known a civil war from 1975-2002. What could be characterized as a ‘proxy Cold-War’ in the 1970s and 1980s, in the 1990s turned into a ‘greed’-based war over the control of natural resources. During the war numerous war crimes, and arguably also crimes against humanity, were committed; an estimated 500,000 to 1 million people died as a consequence of the war and the country was infected with landmines. When a peace agreement was signed in 2002, it included a blanket amnesty for all former warring parties.
Based on a literature review and original empirical fieldwork in Angola, this project describes the transitional justice process in Angola. In particular, it describes how in the absence of any accountability mechanisms alternative strategies to truth seeking, reconciliation, commemoration or memorialization have been adopted.
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- Munster, M. van & Wijk, J. van (2020). “Angola: the pandora box of ‘Embracing and Forgiving’”, Justiceinfo.net, 14 January 2020.
- Wijk, J. van (2019). Angola, War Crimes and Transitional Justice, SSRN-working paper to be published in the upcoming ‘The Oxford Handbook on Atrocity Crimes’
- Wijk, J. van (2019). A Guerra Civil Angolana, os Crimes contra a Humanidade e as suas Consequências, Revista Internacional de Universidade Katyavala Bwila, Vol. 1.
- Wijk, J. van (2012), “Amnesty for War Crimes in Angola; Principled for a Day?”, International Criminal Law Review, 12(2): 743-761.